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In the code HFBTHO (v1.66p), the HFB energy (9) can be minimized under the constraint of a fixed quadrupole moment. This option should be used if one is interested in the potential energy surface of a nucleus along the quadrupole collective coordinate. The quadrupole constraint is assumed in the standard quadratic form [40]:

{E}^{Q} = C_{Q}
\left(\langle\hat Q\rangle
- \bar Q\right)^2,
\end{displaymath} (78)

where $\langle\hat Q\rangle$ is the average value of the mass-quadrupole-moment operator,
\end{displaymath} (79)

$\bar Q$ is the constraint value of the quadrupole moment, and $C_{Q}$ is the stiffness constant.

Jacek Dobaczewski 2004-06-25