Laboratory of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)

Molecular Beam Epitaxy is a technique of crystal growth, which is realized in ultra high vacuum, on monocrystalline substrate, at very low deposition rate - below one monolayer per second. We are using MBE for growth of semiconductor heterostructures: thin layers, quantum wells, quantum dots, nanowires, microcavities, diluted magnetic semiconductors, and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs).

Our MBE machine contains two growth chambers:
- II-VI chamber for tellurides and selenides, including TMDs.
- III-V chamber for arsenides.

The lab was founded in 2011 in the frame of Center for Preclinical Research and Technology (CePT). It belongs to the Solid State Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw. Since 2014 the lab is located in building Cent I (room 1.222). Head of the lab is dr hab. Wojciech Pacuski.

Our latest development is a recipe for growth of high optical quality TMDs, see figure below with a mini-cover of Nano Letters. Other updates can be found on our Twitter or on website of Laboratory of Ultrafast MagnetoSpectroscopy (LUMS). List of all our publications is also below.

MBE lab at Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw.
The machine was fabricated and delivered by

Present team of MBE lab (year 2020):

Wojciech Pacuski (Head of MBE lab), Bartłomiej Seredyński (PhD student), Karolina Połczyńska (PhD student)

and, not shown, Janusz Sadowski (Visiting Prof.), Julia Kucharek (Master student)

Publications based on samples grown in our MBE lab:

59. "Angle-resolved optically detected magnetic resonance as a tool for strain determination in nanostructures",
A. Bogucki, M. Goryca, A. Łopion, W. Pacuski, K. Połczyńska, J. Domagała, M. Tokarczyk, T. Fąs, A. Golnik, P. Kossacki,
arXiv:2106.06451 (2021).  

   58. "Heteroepitaxial growth of high optical quality, wafer-scale van der Waals heterostrucutres",
K. Ludwiczak, A. K. Dąbrowska, J. Binder, M. Tokarczyk, J. Iwański, B. Kurowska, J. Turczyński, G. Kowalski, R. Bożek, R. Stępniewski, W. Pacuski, A.Wysmołek,
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2021).    

   57. "Molecular Beam Epitaxy of a 2D Material Nearly Lattice Matched to a 3D Substrate: NiTe2 on GaAs",
B. Seredyński, Z. Ogorzałek, W. Zajkowska, R. Bożek, M. Tokarczyk, J. Suffczyński, S. Kret, J. Sadowski, M. Gryglas-Borysiewicz, W. Pacuski,
Cryst. Growth Des. 21, 5773 (2021).    

   56. "Hybrid Semimagnetic Polaritons in a Strongly Coupled Optical Microcavity",
T. Fąs, M. Ściesiek, W. Pacuski, A. Golnik, J. Suffczyński,
J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 12, 7619 (2021).     Supporting Information, Press release: PL.

   55. "Neuromorphic binarized polariton networks",
R. Mirek, A. Opala, P. Comaron, M. Furman, M. Król, K. Tyszka, B.j Seredyński, D. Ballarini, D. Sanvitto, T. C. H. Liew, W. Pacuski, J. Suffczyński, J. Szczytko, M. Matuszewski, B.Piętka,
Nano Letters 21, 3715 (2021).     Supporting Information, Press release: PL.

   54. "Polariton lasing and energy-degenerate parametric scattering in non-resonantly driven coupled planar microcavities",
K. Sawicki, T. J. Sturges, M. Ściesiek, T. Kazimierczuk, K. Sobczak, A. Golnik, W. Pacuski, J. Suffczyński,
Nanophotonics 10, 2421 (2021).     Supplementary Materials, Press release: EN, PL.

   53. "Long-distance coupling and energy transfer between exciton states in magnetically controlled microcavities",
M. Ściesiek, K. Sawicki, W. Pacuski, K. Sobczak, T. Kazimierczuk, A. Golnik, J. Suffczyński ,
Communications Materials 1, 78 (2020).    

   52. " Charge Transport in MBE-grown 2H-MoTe2 Bilayers with Enhanced Stability Provided by AlOx Capping Layer",
Z. Ogorzałek, B. Seredyński, S. Kret, A. Kwiatkowski, K. P. Korona, M. Grzeszczyk, J. Mierzejewski, D. Wasik, W. Pacuski, J. Sadowski and M. Borysiewicz,
Nanoscale 12, 16535 (2020).

   51. "Narrow excitonic lines and large-scale homogeneity of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayer grown by molecular beam epitaxy on hexagonal boron nitride",
W. Pacuski, M. Grzeszczyk, K. Nogajewski, A. Bogucki, K. Oreszczuk, J. Kucharek, K.E. Połczyńska, B. Seredyński, A. Rodek, R. Bożek, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, S. Kret, J. Sadowski, T. Kazimierczuk, M. Potemski, P. Kossacki,
Nano Letters 20, 3058 (2020).       Supporting Information, Press release EN, PL.

   50. "Ultra-long-working-distance spectroscopy of single nanostructures with aspherical solid immersion microlenses",
A. Bogucki, Ł. Zinkiewicz, M. Grzeszczyk, W. Pacuski, K. Nogajewski, T. Kazimierczuk, A. Rodek, J. Suffczyński, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Wasylczyk, M. Potemski, P. Kossacki,
Light: Science & Applications 9, 48 (2020).       Supplementary information, Press release EN, PL.

   49. "Direct Interbranch Relaxation of Polaritons in a Microcavity with Embedded CdSe/(Cd,Mg)Se Quantum Wells",
K. Sawicki, M. Jurczak, W. Pacuski, J. Suffczyński ,
Journal of Electronic Materials (2020).

   48. "Charged Exciton Dissociation Energy in (Cd,Mn)Te Quantum Wells with Variable Disorder and Carrier Density",
A. Łopion, A. Bogucki, K. E. Połczyńska, W. Pacuski, A. Golnik, T. Kazimierczuk, P. Kossacki,
Journal of Electronic Materials (2020).

   47. "Distributed Bragg reflector made of CdSe and ZnTe",
K.E.Połczyńska, K.Sobczak, W.Pacuski,
Superlattices and Microstructures 139, 106422 (2020).

   46. "Photoluminescence of CdTe quantum wells doped with cobalt and iron",
P. Piotrowski, W. Pacuski,
J. Lumin. 221, 117047 (2020).

   45. "Direct measurement of hyperfine shifts and radiofrequency manipulation of the nuclear spins in individual CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots",
G. Ragunathan, J. Kobak, G. Gillard, W. Pacuski, K. Sobczak, J. Borysiuk, M. S. Skolnick, E. A. Chekhovich,
Phys. Rev. Lett., 122, 096801 (2019).

   44. "Triple threshold lasing from a photonic trap in a Te/Se-based optical microcavity",
K. Sawicki, J.-G. Rousset, R. Rudniewski, W. Pacuski, M. Ściesiek, T. Kazimierczuk, K. Sobczak, J. Borysiuk, M. Nawrocki, J. Suffczyński
Communications Physics 2, 38 (2019).

   43. "Giant spin Meissner effect in a non-equilibrium exciton-polariton gas",
M. Król, R. Mirek, D. Stephan, K. Lekenta, J.-G. Rousset, W. Pacuski, A. V. Kavokin, M. Matuszewski, J. Szczytko, B. Piętka,
Phys Rev. B 99, 115318 (2019).  

   42. "Readout of a dopant spin in the anisotropic quantum dot with a single magnetic ion",
A. Rodek, T. Kazimierczuk, A. Bogucki, T. Smoleński, W. Pacuski, P. Kossacki,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 31, 455301 (2019).

   41. "MnSe - Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Optical Characterisation",
J. Kucharek, R. Bożek, W. Pacuski,
Acta Physica Polonica A 136, 598 (2019).

   40. "Interaction of Te and Se interlayers with Ag or Au nanofilms in sandwich structures",
A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, E. Górecka, W. Pacuski and T. Szoplik
Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 10, 238 (2019).

   39. "(Cd,Zn,Mg)Te-based microcavity on MgTe sacrificial buffer: Growth, lift-off, and transmission studies of polaritons",
B. Seredyński, M. Król, P. Starzyk, R. Mirek, M. Ściesiek, K. Sobczak, J. Borysiuk, D. Stephan, J.-G. Rousset, J. Szczytko, B. Piętka, W. Pacuski,
Phys. Rev. Materials 2, 043406 (2018).

   38. "Optical fiber micro-connector with nanometer positioning precision for rapid prototyping of photonic devices",
A. Bogucki, Ł. Zinkiewicz, W. Pacuski, P. Wasylczyk, P. Kossacki,
Optics Express 26, 11513 (2018).

   37. "Spin polarized semimagnetic exciton-polariton condensate in magnetic field",
M. Król, R. Mirek, K. Lekenta, J.-G. Rousset, D. Stephan, M. Nawrocki, M. Matuszewski, J. Szczytko, W. Pacuski, B. Piętka,
Scientific Reports 8, 6694 (2018).

   36. "Permittivity of Ge, Te and Se thin films in the 200–1500 nm spectral range. Predicting the segregation effects in silver",
A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, W. Pacuski, T. Szoplik,
Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing 81, 64 (2018)

   35. "Direct determination of zero-field splitting for single Co2+ ion embedded in a CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot",
J. Kobak, A. Bogucki, T. Smoleński, M. Papaj, M. Koperski, M. Potemski, P. Kossacki, A. Golnik, W. Pacuski,
Phys. Rev. B 97, 045305 (2018),

   34. "Effect of magnetic field on the lasing threshold of a semimagnetic polariton condensate",
J.-G. Rousset, B. Piętka, M. Król, R. Mirek, K. Lekenta, J. Szczytko, W. Pacuski, M. Nawrocki,
Phys. Rev. B 96, 125403 (2017) .

   33. "Origin of luminescence quenching in structures containing CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots with a few Mn2+ ions",
K. Oreszczuk, M. Goryca, W. Pacuski, T. Smoleński, M. Nawrocki, P. Kossacki,
Phys. Rev. B 96, 205436 (2017).

   32. "Fine structure of an exciton coupled to a single Fe2+ ion in a CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot",
T. Smoleński, T. Kazimierczuk, M. Goryca, W. Pacuski, and P. Kossacki,
Phys. Rev. B 96, 155411 (2017).

   31. "Coupling of Quantum Dots with Quantum Wells in a System Based on (Cd,Zn,Mg)Te"
K. Połczyńska, E. Janik, P. Kossacki, W. Pacuski,
Acta Physica Polonica A 132, 369 (2017). 

   30. "Exfoliation of epilayers with quantum dots",
B. Seredyński, P. Starzyk, W. Pacuski,
Materials Today: Proceedings 4, 7053 (2017).

   29. "Design and control of mode interaction in coupled ZnTe optical microcavities",
M. Ściesiek, W. Pacuski, J-G. Rousset, M. Parlińska-Wojtan, A. Golnik, J. Suffczyński,
Cryst. Growth Des. 17, 3716 (2017).

   28. "Antireflective photonic structure for coherent nonlinear spectroscopy of single magnetic quantum dots",
W. Pacuski, J.-G. Rousset, V. Delmonte, T. Jakubczyk, K. Sobczak, J. Borysiuk, K. Sawicki, E. Janik, J. Kasprzak,
Cryst. Growth Des. 17, 2987 (2017).

   27. "Angular dependence of giant Zeeman effect for semi-magnetic cavity polaritons",
R. Mirek, M. Król, K. Lekenta, J.-G. Rousset, M. Nawrocki, J. Szczytko, M. Kulczykowski, M. Matuszewski, W. Pacuski, B. Piętka,
Phys. Rev. B 95, 085429 (2017). .

   26. "Magnetic Ground State of an Individual Fe2+ Ion in Strained Semiconductor Nanostructure"
T. Smoleński, T. Kazimierczuk, J. Kobak, M. Goryca, A. Golnik, P. Kossacki, W. Pacuski,
Nature Communications 7, 10484 (2016).    Supplementary Information. Press release: EN, PL.

   25. "Effect of electron-hole separation on optical properties of individual Cd(Se,Te) quantum dots",
M. Ściesiek, J. Suffczyński, W. Pacuski, M. Parlińska-Wojtan, T. Smoleński, P. Kossacki, and A. Golnik,
Phys. Rev. B 93, 195313 (2016), or free access preprint arXiv:1603.00313.

   24. "Anisotropy of in-plane hole g factor in CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots",
A. Bogucki, T. Smoleński, M. Goryca, T. Kazimierczuk, J. Kobak, W. Pacuski, P. Wojnar, and P. Kossacki,
Phys. Rev. B 93, 235410 (2016),or free access preprint arXiv:1604.02591.

   23. "Comparison of magneto-optical properties of various excitonic complexes in CdTe and CdSe self-assembled quantum dots",
J. Kobak, T. Smoleński, M. Goryca, J.-G. Rousset, W. Pacuski, A. Bogucki, K. Oreszczuk, P. Kossacki, M. Nawrocki, A. Golnik, J. Płachta, P. Wojnar, C. Kruse, D. Hommel, M. Potemski, T. Kazimierczuk,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 28, 265302 (2016)or free access preprint

   22. "Distributed Bragg reflectors obtained by combining Se and Te compounds: Influence on the luminescence from CdTe quantum dots",
J.-G. Rousset, J. Kobak, E. Janik, M. Parlinska-Wojtan, T. Slupinski, A. Golnik, P. Kossacki, M. Nawrocki, W. Pacuski,
J. Appl. Phys. 119, 183105 (2016).

   21. "Epitaxial growth and Photoluminescence Excitation spectroscopy of CdSe Quantum Dots in (Zn,Cd)Se barrier",
J. Piwowar, W. Pacuski, T. Smoleński, M. Goryca, A. Bogucki, A. Golnik, M. Nawrocki, P. Kossacki, J. Suffczyński,
Journal of Luminescence 173, 94 (2016),or free access preprint arXiv:1512.07929.

   20. "Strong coupling and polariton lasing in Te based microcavities embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells",
J.-G. Rousset, B. Piętka, M. Król, R. Mirek, K. Lekenta, J. Szczytko, J. Borysiuk, J. Suffczyński, T. Kazimierczuk, M. Goryca, T. Smoleński, P. Kossacki, M. Nawrocki, W. Pacuski.
Applied Physics Letters 107, 201109 (2015), or free access preprint arXiv:1510.04723

   19. "Optical spin orientation of an individual Mn2+ ion in a CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot"
T. Smoleński, W. Pacuski, M. Goryca, M. Nawrocki, A. Golnik, P. Kossacki,
Phys. Rev. B 91, 045306 (2015).
Extended version: arXiv:1408.2928 (2014).

   18. "Single-color, in situ photolithography marking of individual CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots containing a single Mn2+ ion",
K. Sawicki, F. K. Malinowski, K. Gałkowski, T. Jakubczyk, P. Kossacki, W. Pacuski, J. Suffczyński,
Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 012101 (2015).

   17. "Effect of magnetic field on intraionic photoluminescence of (Zn,Co)Se",
M.J. Grzybowski, A. Golnik, M. Sawicki, W. Pacuski,
Solid State Commun. 208, 7 (2015).

   16. "Designing quantum dots for solotronics"
J. Kobak, T. Smoleński, M. Goryca, M. Papaj, K. Gietka, A. Bogucki, M. Koperski, J.-G. Rousset, J. Suffczyński, E. Janik, M. Nawrocki, A. Golnik, P. Kossacki, W. Pacuski,
Nature Communications 5, 3191 (2014).    Supplementary Information.
Press release: EN, PL.

   15. " MBE grown microcavities based on selenium and tellurium compounds",
J.-G. Rousset, J. Kobak, E. Janik, T. Jakubczyk, R. Rudniewski, P. Piotrowski, M. Ściesiek, J. Borysiuk, T. Slupinski, A. Golnik, P. Kossacki, M. Nawrocki, W. Pacuski,
Journal of Crystal Growth 401, 499 (2014).

14. "The impact of position of Mn delta-doping on the formation of CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots with single magnetic ions",
K. Gietka, J. Kobak, E. Janik, J.G. Rousset, J. Borysiuk, M. Nawrocki, A. Golnik, P. Kossacki, W. Pacuski,
Journal of Crystal Growth 401, 640 (2014).

13. "Photoluminescence studies of giant Zeeman effect in MBE-grown cobalt-based dilute magnetic semiconductors",
M. Papaj, J. Kobak, J.G. Rousset, E. Janik, M. Nawrocki, P. Kossacki, A. Golnik, W. Pacuski,
Journal of Crystal Growth 401, 644 (2014).

   12. "Individual cobalt and manganese ions in semiconductor quantum dots and photonic structures",
W. Pacuski,
Proc. SPIE 9167, Spintronics VII, 91670K (2014); doi:10.1117/12.2063774

11. "Photoluminescence Dynamics of CdSe Quantum Dot with Single Mn2+ Ion Under Modulated Excitation"
M. Pilat , M. Goryca, T. Smoleński, W. Pacuski, P. Kossacki,
Acta Physica Polonica A 126, 1212 (2014). 

10. "Type I CdSe and CdMgSe Quantum Wells"
R. Rudniewski, J.-G. Rousset, E. Janik, P. Kossacki, A. Golnik, M. Nawrocki, W. Pacuski,
Acta Physica Polonica A 126, 1167 (2014). 

9. "Optical Properties of CdTe QDs in Proximity to a Surface"
J. Piwowar, J. Papierska, K. Sawicki, J. Kobak, W. Pacuski, A. Golnik, P. Kossacki, J. Suffczyński,
Acta Physica Polonica A 124, 795 (2013).  

   8. "Ultra low density of CdTe quantum dots grown by MBE",
J. Kobak, J.-G. Rousset, R. Rudniewski, E. Janik, T. Słupiński, P. Kossacki, A. Golnik, W. Pacuski,
Journal of Crystal Growth 378, 274 (2013).

   7. "MBE growth and characterization of a II-VI distributed Bragg reflector and microcavity lattice-matched to MgTe",
J.-G. Rousset, J. Kobak, T. Slupinski, T. Jakubczyk, P. Stawicki, E. Janik, M. Tokarczyk, G. Kowalski, M. Nawrocki, W. Pacuski,
Journal of Crystal Growth 378, 266 (2013).

   6. "MBE Growth of CdTe/ZnTe Quantum Dots with Single Mn Ions",
K. Gietka, J. Kobak, J.-G. Rousset, E. Janik, T. Słupiński, P. Kossacki, A. Golnik, W. Pacuski,
Acta Physica Polonica A 122, 1056 (2012).  

5. "MBE Growth and Magnetooptical Properties of (Zn,Co)Te Layers",
M. Papaj, J. Kobak, J.-G. Rousset, E. Janik, A. Golnik, P. Kossacki, W. Pacuski,
Acta Physica Polonica A 122, 1010 (2012).  

   4. "MBE Growth and Characterization of a III-V Distributed Bragg Reflectors and InAs Quantum Dots"
J.-G. Rousset, T. Słupinski, T. Jakubczyk, J. Kobak, P. Stawicki, K. Gołasa, A. Babinski, M. Nawrocki, W. Pacuski,
Acta Physica Polonica A 122, 984 (2012).  

3. T. Smoleński,
CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot with a single Mn2+ ion - a new system for a single spin manipulation
J. Appl. Phys. 117, 112805 (2015).

2. "Efficient Emission from InAlGaAs Single Quantum Dots with Low Lattice Misfit and AlGaAs Indirect Bandgap Barrier",
T. Słupiński, K.P. Korona, J. Papierska, J. Borysiuk,
Acta Physica Polonica A 130, 1229 (2016).

1. "Donor-deactivating defects above the equilibrium doping limit in GaAs:Te,Ge and GaAs:Te studied by annealing and Hall effect under pressure",
T. Slupinski, D. Wasik, J. Przybytek,
Journal of Crystal Growth 468, 433 (2017).

We are open to scientific cooperation.
Visit home page of dr hab. Wojciech Pacuski

We started growth on September 29, 2011.

RHEED image of our first layer, GaAs on GaAs substrate.

Our MBE in a new cleanroom, 2014.

Example of microcavity sample grown in March, 2018

Our Team (2011-2017):

Dr. Wojciech Pacuski, responsible for II-VI chamber

Dr. Tomasz Słupiński, responsible for III-V chamber

Dr. Elżbieta Janik

Dr. Jakub Kobak and Dr. Jean-Guy Rousset